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Contract Name:
CrossChainNFT

Contract Source Code:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (access/Ownable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../utils/Context.sol";

/**
 * @dev Contract module which provides a basic access control mechanism, where
 * there is an account (an owner) that can be granted exclusive access to
 * specific functions.
 *
 * By default, the owner account will be the one that deploys the contract. This
 * can later be changed with {transferOwnership}.
 *
 * This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the modifier
 * `onlyOwner`, which can be applied to your functions to restrict their use to
 * the owner.
 */
abstract contract Ownable is Context {
    address private _owner;

    event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner);

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract setting the deployer as the initial owner.
     */
    constructor() {
        _transferOwnership(_msgSender());
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
     */
    modifier onlyOwner() {
        _checkOwner();
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address of the current owner.
     */
    function owner() public view virtual returns (address) {
        return _owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if the sender is not the owner.
     */
    function _checkOwner() internal view virtual {
        require(owner() == _msgSender(), "Ownable: caller is not the owner");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Leaves the contract without owner. It will not be possible to call
     * `onlyOwner` functions anymore. Can only be called by the current owner.
     *
     * NOTE: Renouncing ownership will leave the contract without an owner,
     * thereby removing any functionality that is only available to the owner.
     */
    function renounceOwnership() public virtual onlyOwner {
        _transferOwnership(address(0));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Can only be called by the current owner.
     */
    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public virtual onlyOwner {
        require(newOwner != address(0), "Ownable: new owner is the zero address");
        _transferOwnership(newOwner);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Internal function without access restriction.
     */
    function _transferOwnership(address newOwner) internal virtual {
        address oldOwner = _owner;
        _owner = newOwner;
        emit OwnershipTransferred(oldOwner, newOwner);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.8.2) (token/ERC721/ERC721.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC721.sol";
import "./IERC721Receiver.sol";
import "./extensions/IERC721Metadata.sol";
import "../../utils/Address.sol";
import "../../utils/Context.sol";
import "../../utils/Strings.sol";
import "../../utils/introspection/ERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-721[ERC721] Non-Fungible Token Standard, including
 * the Metadata extension, but not including the Enumerable extension, which is available separately as
 * {ERC721Enumerable}.
 */
contract ERC721 is Context, ERC165, IERC721, IERC721Metadata {
    using Address for address;
    using Strings for uint256;

    // Token name
    string private _name;

    // Token symbol
    string private _symbol;

    // Mapping from token ID to owner address
    mapping(uint256 => address) private _owners;

    // Mapping owner address to token count
    mapping(address => uint256) private _balances;

    // Mapping from token ID to approved address
    mapping(uint256 => address) private _tokenApprovals;

    // Mapping from owner to operator approvals
    mapping(address => mapping(address => bool)) private _operatorApprovals;

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract by setting a `name` and a `symbol` to the token collection.
     */
    constructor(string memory name_, string memory symbol_) {
        _name = name_;
        _symbol = symbol_;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override(ERC165, IERC165) returns (bool) {
        return
            interfaceId == type(IERC721).interfaceId ||
            interfaceId == type(IERC721Metadata).interfaceId ||
            super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-balanceOf}.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC721: address zero is not a valid owner");
        return _balances[owner];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-ownerOf}.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        address owner = _ownerOf(tokenId);
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC721: invalid token ID");
        return owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-name}.
     */
    function name() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-symbol}.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-tokenURI}.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        _requireMinted(tokenId);

        string memory baseURI = _baseURI();
        return bytes(baseURI).length > 0 ? string(abi.encodePacked(baseURI, tokenId.toString())) : "";
    }

    /**
     * @dev Base URI for computing {tokenURI}. If set, the resulting URI for each
     * token will be the concatenation of the `baseURI` and the `tokenId`. Empty
     * by default, can be overridden in child contracts.
     */
    function _baseURI() internal view virtual returns (string memory) {
        return "";
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-approve}.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) public virtual override {
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);
        require(to != owner, "ERC721: approval to current owner");

        require(
            _msgSender() == owner || isApprovedForAll(owner, _msgSender()),
            "ERC721: approve caller is not token owner or approved for all"
        );

        _approve(to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-getApproved}.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        _requireMinted(tokenId);

        return _tokenApprovals[tokenId];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) public virtual override {
        _setApprovalForAll(_msgSender(), operator, approved);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-isApprovedForAll}.
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return _operatorApprovals[owner][operator];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-transferFrom}.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public virtual override {
        //solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
        require(_isApprovedOrOwner(_msgSender(), tokenId), "ERC721: caller is not token owner or approved");

        _transfer(from, to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public virtual override {
        safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, "");
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory data
    ) public virtual override {
        require(_isApprovedOrOwner(_msgSender(), tokenId), "ERC721: caller is not token owner or approved");
        _safeTransfer(from, to, tokenId, data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`, checking first that contract recipients
     * are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * `data` is additional data, it has no specified format and it is sent in call to `to`.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to {safeTransferFrom}, and can be used to e.g.
     * implement alternative mechanisms to perform token transfer, such as signature-based.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _safeTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory data
    ) internal virtual {
        _transfer(from, to, tokenId);
        require(_checkOnERC721Received(from, to, tokenId, data), "ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the owner of the `tokenId`. Does NOT revert if token doesn't exist
     */
    function _ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return _owners[tokenId];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `tokenId` exists.
     *
     * Tokens can be managed by their owner or approved accounts via {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Tokens start existing when they are minted (`_mint`),
     * and stop existing when they are burned (`_burn`).
     */
    function _exists(uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (bool) {
        return _ownerOf(tokenId) != address(0);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `spender` is allowed to manage `tokenId`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function _isApprovedOrOwner(address spender, uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (bool) {
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);
        return (spender == owner || isApprovedForAll(owner, spender) || getApproved(tokenId) == spender);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely mints `tokenId` and transfers it to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must not exist.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _safeMint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _safeMint(to, tokenId, "");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-ERC721-_safeMint-address-uint256-}[`_safeMint`], with an additional `data` parameter which is
     * forwarded in {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} to contract recipients.
     */
    function _safeMint(
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory data
    ) internal virtual {
        _mint(to, tokenId);
        require(
            _checkOnERC721Received(address(0), to, tokenId, data),
            "ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer"
        );
    }

    /**
     * @dev Mints `tokenId` and transfers it to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Usage of this method is discouraged, use {_safeMint} whenever possible
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must not exist.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _mint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        require(to != address(0), "ERC721: mint to the zero address");
        require(!_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: token already minted");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(address(0), to, tokenId, 1);

        // Check that tokenId was not minted by `_beforeTokenTransfer` hook
        require(!_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: token already minted");

        unchecked {
            // Will not overflow unless all 2**256 token ids are minted to the same owner.
            // Given that tokens are minted one by one, it is impossible in practice that
            // this ever happens. Might change if we allow batch minting.
            // The ERC fails to describe this case.
            _balances[to] += 1;
        }

        _owners[tokenId] = to;

        emit Transfer(address(0), to, tokenId);

        _afterTokenTransfer(address(0), to, tokenId, 1);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `tokenId`.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is burned.
     * This is an internal function that does not check if the sender is authorized to operate on the token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _burn(uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);

        _beforeTokenTransfer(owner, address(0), tokenId, 1);

        // Update ownership in case tokenId was transferred by `_beforeTokenTransfer` hook
        owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);

        // Clear approvals
        delete _tokenApprovals[tokenId];

        unchecked {
            // Cannot overflow, as that would require more tokens to be burned/transferred
            // out than the owner initially received through minting and transferring in.
            _balances[owner] -= 1;
        }
        delete _owners[tokenId];

        emit Transfer(owner, address(0), tokenId);

        _afterTokenTransfer(owner, address(0), tokenId, 1);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` from `from` to `to`.
     *  As opposed to {transferFrom}, this imposes no restrictions on msg.sender.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _transfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) internal virtual {
        require(ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId) == from, "ERC721: transfer from incorrect owner");
        require(to != address(0), "ERC721: transfer to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, tokenId, 1);

        // Check that tokenId was not transferred by `_beforeTokenTransfer` hook
        require(ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId) == from, "ERC721: transfer from incorrect owner");

        // Clear approvals from the previous owner
        delete _tokenApprovals[tokenId];

        unchecked {
            // `_balances[from]` cannot overflow for the same reason as described in `_burn`:
            // `from`'s balance is the number of token held, which is at least one before the current
            // transfer.
            // `_balances[to]` could overflow in the conditions described in `_mint`. That would require
            // all 2**256 token ids to be minted, which in practice is impossible.
            _balances[from] -= 1;
            _balances[to] += 1;
        }
        _owners[tokenId] = to;

        emit Transfer(from, to, tokenId);

        _afterTokenTransfer(from, to, tokenId, 1);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Approve `to` to operate on `tokenId`
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function _approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _tokenApprovals[tokenId] = to;
        emit Approval(ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId), to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Approve `operator` to operate on all of `owner` tokens
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function _setApprovalForAll(
        address owner,
        address operator,
        bool approved
    ) internal virtual {
        require(owner != operator, "ERC721: approve to caller");
        _operatorApprovals[owner][operator] = approved;
        emit ApprovalForAll(owner, operator, approved);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Reverts if the `tokenId` has not been minted yet.
     */
    function _requireMinted(uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual {
        require(_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: invalid token ID");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Internal function to invoke {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} on a target address.
     * The call is not executed if the target address is not a contract.
     *
     * @param from address representing the previous owner of the given token ID
     * @param to target address that will receive the tokens
     * @param tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
     * @param data bytes optional data to send along with the call
     * @return bool whether the call correctly returned the expected magic value
     */
    function _checkOnERC721Received(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory data
    ) private returns (bool) {
        if (to.isContract()) {
            try IERC721Receiver(to).onERC721Received(_msgSender(), from, tokenId, data) returns (bytes4 retval) {
                return retval == IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received.selector;
            } catch (bytes memory reason) {
                if (reason.length == 0) {
                    revert("ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer");
                } else {
                    /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
                    assembly {
                        revert(add(32, reason), mload(reason))
                    }
                }
            }
        } else {
            return true;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before any token transfer. This includes minting and burning. If {ERC721Consecutive} is
     * used, the hook may be called as part of a consecutive (batch) mint, as indicated by `batchSize` greater than 1.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, ``from``'s tokens will be transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, the tokens will be minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, ``from``'s tokens will be burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     * - `batchSize` is non-zero.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 firstTokenId,
        uint256 batchSize
    ) internal virtual {}

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called after any token transfer. This includes minting and burning. If {ERC721Consecutive} is
     * used, the hook may be called as part of a consecutive (batch) mint, as indicated by `batchSize` greater than 1.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, ``from``'s tokens were transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, the tokens were minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, ``from``'s tokens were burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     * - `batchSize` is non-zero.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _afterTokenTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 firstTokenId,
        uint256 batchSize
    ) internal virtual {}

    /**
     * @dev Unsafe write access to the balances, used by extensions that "mint" tokens using an {ownerOf} override.
     *
     * WARNING: Anyone calling this MUST ensure that the balances remain consistent with the ownership. The invariant
     * being that for any address `a` the value returned by `balanceOf(a)` must be equal to the number of tokens such
     * that `ownerOf(tokenId)` is `a`.
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function __unsafe_increaseBalance(address account, uint256 amount) internal {
        _balances[account] += amount;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (token/ERC721/extensions/IERC721Metadata.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../IERC721.sol";

/**
 * @title ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token Standard, optional metadata extension
 * @dev See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-721
 */
interface IERC721Metadata is IERC721 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection name.
     */
    function name() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection symbol.
     */
    function symbol() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for `tokenId` token.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (string memory);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.8.0) (token/ERC721/IERC721.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../../utils/introspection/IERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Required interface of an ERC721 compliant contract.
 */
interface IERC721 is IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `tokenId` token is transferred from `from` to `to`.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables `approved` to manage the `tokenId` token.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed approved, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables or disables (`approved`) `operator` to manage all of its assets.
     */
    event ApprovalForAll(address indexed owner, address indexed operator, bool approved);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of tokens in ``owner``'s account.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) external view returns (uint256 balance);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the owner of the `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address owner);

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`, checking first that contract recipients
     * are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must have been allowed to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Note that the caller is responsible to confirm that the recipient is capable of receiving ERC721
     * or else they may be permanently lost. Usage of {safeTransferFrom} prevents loss, though the caller must
     * understand this adds an external call which potentially creates a reentrancy vulnerability.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is transferred.
     *
     * Only a single account can be approved at a time, so approving the zero address clears previous approvals.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) external;

    /**
     * @dev Approve or remove `operator` as an operator for the caller.
     * Operators can call {transferFrom} or {safeTransferFrom} for any token owned by the caller.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The `operator` cannot be the caller.
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool _approved) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns the account approved for `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address operator);

    /**
     * @dev Returns if the `operator` is allowed to manage all of the assets of `owner`.
     *
     * See {setApprovalForAll}
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) external view returns (bool);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.6.0) (token/ERC721/IERC721Receiver.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @title ERC721 token receiver interface
 * @dev Interface for any contract that wants to support safeTransfers
 * from ERC721 asset contracts.
 */
interface IERC721Receiver {
    /**
     * @dev Whenever an {IERC721} `tokenId` token is transferred to this contract via {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}
     * by `operator` from `from`, this function is called.
     *
     * It must return its Solidity selector to confirm the token transfer.
     * If any other value is returned or the interface is not implemented by the recipient, the transfer will be reverted.
     *
     * The selector can be obtained in Solidity with `IERC721Receiver.onERC721Received.selector`.
     */
    function onERC721Received(
        address operator,
        address from,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external returns (bytes4);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.8.0) (utils/Address.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.1;

/**
 * @dev Collection of functions related to the address type
 */
library Address {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if `account` is a contract.
     *
     * [IMPORTANT]
     * ====
     * It is unsafe to assume that an address for which this function returns
     * false is an externally-owned account (EOA) and not a contract.
     *
     * Among others, `isContract` will return false for the following
     * types of addresses:
     *
     *  - an externally-owned account
     *  - a contract in construction
     *  - an address where a contract will be created
     *  - an address where a contract lived, but was destroyed
     * ====
     *
     * [IMPORTANT]
     * ====
     * You shouldn't rely on `isContract` to protect against flash loan attacks!
     *
     * Preventing calls from contracts is highly discouraged. It breaks composability, breaks support for smart wallets
     * like Gnosis Safe, and does not provide security since it can be circumvented by calling from a contract
     * constructor.
     * ====
     */
    function isContract(address account) internal view returns (bool) {
        // This method relies on extcodesize/address.code.length, which returns 0
        // for contracts in construction, since the code is only stored at the end
        // of the constructor execution.

        return account.code.length > 0;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Replacement for Solidity's `transfer`: sends `amount` wei to
     * `recipient`, forwarding all available gas and reverting on errors.
     *
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1884[EIP1884] increases the gas cost
     * of certain opcodes, possibly making contracts go over the 2300 gas limit
     * imposed by `transfer`, making them unable to receive funds via
     * `transfer`. {sendValue} removes this limitation.
     *
     * https://diligence.consensys.net/posts/2019/09/stop-using-soliditys-transfer-now/[Learn more].
     *
     * IMPORTANT: because control is transferred to `recipient`, care must be
     * taken to not create reentrancy vulnerabilities. Consider using
     * {ReentrancyGuard} or the
     * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.5.11/security-considerations.html#use-the-checks-effects-interactions-pattern[checks-effects-interactions pattern].
     */
    function sendValue(address payable recipient, uint256 amount) internal {
        require(address(this).balance >= amount, "Address: insufficient balance");

        (bool success, ) = recipient.call{value: amount}("");
        require(success, "Address: unable to send value, recipient may have reverted");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Performs a Solidity function call using a low level `call`. A
     * plain `call` is an unsafe replacement for a function call: use this
     * function instead.
     *
     * If `target` reverts with a revert reason, it is bubbled up by this
     * function (like regular Solidity function calls).
     *
     * Returns the raw returned data. To convert to the expected return value,
     * use https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/units-and-global-variables.html?highlight=abi.decode#abi-encoding-and-decoding-functions[`abi.decode`].
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `target` must be a contract.
     * - calling `target` with `data` must not revert.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, 0, "Address: low-level call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`], but with
     * `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, 0, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but also transferring `value` wei to `target`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the calling contract must have an ETH balance of at least `value`.
     * - the called Solidity function must be `payable`.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        uint256 value
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, value, "Address: low-level call with value failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCallWithValue-address-bytes-uint256-}[`functionCallWithValue`], but
     * with `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        uint256 value,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        require(address(this).balance >= value, "Address: insufficient balance for call");
        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.call{value: value}(data);
        return verifyCallResultFromTarget(target, success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a static call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.3._
     */
    function functionStaticCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionStaticCall(target, data, "Address: low-level static call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-string-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a static call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.3._
     */
    function functionStaticCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.staticcall(data);
        return verifyCallResultFromTarget(target, success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a delegate call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function functionDelegateCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionDelegateCall(target, data, "Address: low-level delegate call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-string-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a delegate call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function functionDelegateCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.delegatecall(data);
        return verifyCallResultFromTarget(target, success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Tool to verify that a low level call to smart-contract was successful, and revert (either by bubbling
     * the revert reason or using the provided one) in case of unsuccessful call or if target was not a contract.
     *
     * _Available since v4.8._
     */
    function verifyCallResultFromTarget(
        address target,
        bool success,
        bytes memory returndata,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
        if (success) {
            if (returndata.length == 0) {
                // only check isContract if the call was successful and the return data is empty
                // otherwise we already know that it was a contract
                require(isContract(target), "Address: call to non-contract");
            }
            return returndata;
        } else {
            _revert(returndata, errorMessage);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Tool to verify that a low level call was successful, and revert if it wasn't, either by bubbling the
     * revert reason or using the provided one.
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function verifyCallResult(
        bool success,
        bytes memory returndata,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal pure returns (bytes memory) {
        if (success) {
            return returndata;
        } else {
            _revert(returndata, errorMessage);
        }
    }

    function _revert(bytes memory returndata, string memory errorMessage) private pure {
        // Look for revert reason and bubble it up if present
        if (returndata.length > 0) {
            // The easiest way to bubble the revert reason is using memory via assembly
            /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
            assembly {
                let returndata_size := mload(returndata)
                revert(add(32, returndata), returndata_size)
            }
        } else {
            revert(errorMessage);
        }
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/Context.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
 * sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
 * via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
 * manner, since when dealing with meta-transactions the account sending and
 * paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
 * is concerned).
 *
 * This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
 */
abstract contract Context {
    function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes calldata) {
        return msg.data;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/introspection/ERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC165} interface.
 *
 * Contracts that want to implement ERC165 should inherit from this contract and override {supportsInterface} to check
 * for the additional interface id that will be supported. For example:
 *
 * ```solidity
 * function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
 *     return interfaceId == type(MyInterface).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * Alternatively, {ERC165Storage} provides an easier to use but more expensive implementation.
 */
abstract contract ERC165 is IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IERC165).interfaceId;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/introspection/IERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC165 standard, as defined in the
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165[EIP].
 *
 * Implementers can declare support of contract interfaces, which can then be
 * queried by others ({ERC165Checker}).
 *
 * For an implementation, see {ERC165}.
 */
interface IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified[EIP section]
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30 000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view returns (bool);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.8.0) (utils/math/Math.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Standard math utilities missing in the Solidity language.
 */
library Math {
    enum Rounding {
        Down, // Toward negative infinity
        Up, // Toward infinity
        Zero // Toward zero
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the largest of two numbers.
     */
    function max(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a > b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the smallest of two numbers.
     */
    function min(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a < b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the average of two numbers. The result is rounded towards
     * zero.
     */
    function average(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // (a + b) / 2 can overflow.
        return (a & b) + (a ^ b) / 2;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the ceiling of the division of two numbers.
     *
     * This differs from standard division with `/` in that it rounds up instead
     * of rounding down.
     */
    function ceilDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // (a + b - 1) / b can overflow on addition, so we distribute.
        return a == 0 ? 0 : (a - 1) / b + 1;
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates floor(x * y / denominator) with full precision. Throws if result overflows a uint256 or denominator == 0
     * @dev Original credit to Remco Bloemen under MIT license (https://xn--2-umb.com/21/muldiv)
     * with further edits by Uniswap Labs also under MIT license.
     */
    function mulDiv(
        uint256 x,
        uint256 y,
        uint256 denominator
    ) internal pure returns (uint256 result) {
        unchecked {
            // 512-bit multiply [prod1 prod0] = x * y. Compute the product mod 2^256 and mod 2^256 - 1, then use
            // use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to reconstruct the 512 bit result. The result is stored in two 256
            // variables such that product = prod1 * 2^256 + prod0.
            uint256 prod0; // Least significant 256 bits of the product
            uint256 prod1; // Most significant 256 bits of the product
            assembly {
                let mm := mulmod(x, y, not(0))
                prod0 := mul(x, y)
                prod1 := sub(sub(mm, prod0), lt(mm, prod0))
            }

            // Handle non-overflow cases, 256 by 256 division.
            if (prod1 == 0) {
                return prod0 / denominator;
            }

            // Make sure the result is less than 2^256. Also prevents denominator == 0.
            require(denominator > prod1);

            ///////////////////////////////////////////////
            // 512 by 256 division.
            ///////////////////////////////////////////////

            // Make division exact by subtracting the remainder from [prod1 prod0].
            uint256 remainder;
            assembly {
                // Compute remainder using mulmod.
                remainder := mulmod(x, y, denominator)

                // Subtract 256 bit number from 512 bit number.
                prod1 := sub(prod1, gt(remainder, prod0))
                prod0 := sub(prod0, remainder)
            }

            // Factor powers of two out of denominator and compute largest power of two divisor of denominator. Always >= 1.
            // See https://cs.stackexchange.com/q/138556/92363.

            // Does not overflow because the denominator cannot be zero at this stage in the function.
            uint256 twos = denominator & (~denominator + 1);
            assembly {
                // Divide denominator by twos.
                denominator := div(denominator, twos)

                // Divide [prod1 prod0] by twos.
                prod0 := div(prod0, twos)

                // Flip twos such that it is 2^256 / twos. If twos is zero, then it becomes one.
                twos := add(div(sub(0, twos), twos), 1)
            }

            // Shift in bits from prod1 into prod0.
            prod0 |= prod1 * twos;

            // Invert denominator mod 2^256. Now that denominator is an odd number, it has an inverse modulo 2^256 such
            // that denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^256. Compute the inverse by starting with a seed that is correct for
            // four bits. That is, denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^4.
            uint256 inverse = (3 * denominator) ^ 2;

            // Use the Newton-Raphson iteration to improve the precision. Thanks to Hensel's lifting lemma, this also works
            // in modular arithmetic, doubling the correct bits in each step.
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^8
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^16
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^32
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^64
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^128
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^256

            // Because the division is now exact we can divide by multiplying with the modular inverse of denominator.
            // This will give us the correct result modulo 2^256. Since the preconditions guarantee that the outcome is
            // less than 2^256, this is the final result. We don't need to compute the high bits of the result and prod1
            // is no longer required.
            result = prod0 * inverse;
            return result;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates x * y / denominator with full precision, following the selected rounding direction.
     */
    function mulDiv(
        uint256 x,
        uint256 y,
        uint256 denominator,
        Rounding rounding
    ) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = mulDiv(x, y, denominator);
        if (rounding == Rounding.Up && mulmod(x, y, denominator) > 0) {
            result += 1;
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the square root of a number. If the number is not a perfect square, the value is rounded down.
     *
     * Inspired by Henry S. Warren, Jr.'s "Hacker's Delight" (Chapter 11).
     */
    function sqrt(uint256 a) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (a == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        // For our first guess, we get the biggest power of 2 which is smaller than the square root of the target.
        //
        // We know that the "msb" (most significant bit) of our target number `a` is a power of 2 such that we have
        // `msb(a) <= a < 2*msb(a)`. This value can be written `msb(a)=2**k` with `k=log2(a)`.
        //
        // This can be rewritten `2**log2(a) <= a < 2**(log2(a) + 1)`
        // → `sqrt(2**k) <= sqrt(a) < sqrt(2**(k+1))`
        // → `2**(k/2) <= sqrt(a) < 2**((k+1)/2) <= 2**(k/2 + 1)`
        //
        // Consequently, `2**(log2(a) / 2)` is a good first approximation of `sqrt(a)` with at least 1 correct bit.
        uint256 result = 1 << (log2(a) >> 1);

        // At this point `result` is an estimation with one bit of precision. We know the true value is a uint128,
        // since it is the square root of a uint256. Newton's method converges quadratically (precision doubles at
        // every iteration). We thus need at most 7 iteration to turn our partial result with one bit of precision
        // into the expected uint128 result.
        unchecked {
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            return min(result, a / result);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates sqrt(a), following the selected rounding direction.
     */
    function sqrt(uint256 a, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = sqrt(a);
            return result + (rounding == Rounding.Up && result * result < a ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 2, rounded down, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log2(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >> 128 > 0) {
                value >>= 128;
                result += 128;
            }
            if (value >> 64 > 0) {
                value >>= 64;
                result += 64;
            }
            if (value >> 32 > 0) {
                value >>= 32;
                result += 32;
            }
            if (value >> 16 > 0) {
                value >>= 16;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >> 8 > 0) {
                value >>= 8;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >> 4 > 0) {
                value >>= 4;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >> 2 > 0) {
                value >>= 2;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >> 1 > 0) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 2, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log2(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log2(value);
            return result + (rounding == Rounding.Up && 1 << result < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10, rounded down, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log10(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >= 10**64) {
                value /= 10**64;
                result += 64;
            }
            if (value >= 10**32) {
                value /= 10**32;
                result += 32;
            }
            if (value >= 10**16) {
                value /= 10**16;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >= 10**8) {
                value /= 10**8;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >= 10**4) {
                value /= 10**4;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >= 10**2) {
                value /= 10**2;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >= 10**1) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log10(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log10(value);
            return result + (rounding == Rounding.Up && 10**result < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 256, rounded down, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     *
     * Adding one to the result gives the number of pairs of hex symbols needed to represent `value` as a hex string.
     */
    function log256(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >> 128 > 0) {
                value >>= 128;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >> 64 > 0) {
                value >>= 64;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >> 32 > 0) {
                value >>= 32;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >> 16 > 0) {
                value >>= 16;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >> 8 > 0) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log256(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log256(value);
            return result + (rounding == Rounding.Up && 1 << (result * 8) < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.8.0) (utils/Strings.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./math/Math.sol";

/**
 * @dev String operations.
 */
library Strings {
    bytes16 private constant _SYMBOLS = "0123456789abcdef";
    uint8 private constant _ADDRESS_LENGTH = 20;

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` decimal representation.
     */
    function toString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 length = Math.log10(value) + 1;
            string memory buffer = new string(length);
            uint256 ptr;
            /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
            assembly {
                ptr := add(buffer, add(32, length))
            }
            while (true) {
                ptr--;
                /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
                assembly {
                    mstore8(ptr, byte(mod(value, 10), _SYMBOLS))
                }
                value /= 10;
                if (value == 0) break;
            }
            return buffer;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        unchecked {
            return toHexString(value, Math.log256(value) + 1);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation with fixed length.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value, uint256 length) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(2 * length + 2);
        buffer[0] = "0";
        buffer[1] = "x";
        for (uint256 i = 2 * length + 1; i > 1; --i) {
            buffer[i] = _SYMBOLS[value & 0xf];
            value >>= 4;
        }
        require(value == 0, "Strings: hex length insufficient");
        return string(buffer);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts an `address` with fixed length of 20 bytes to its not checksummed ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(address addr) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        return toHexString(uint256(uint160(addr)), _ADDRESS_LENGTH);
    }
}

//SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.9;

import '@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol';
import '@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC721/ERC721.sol';
import './interfaces/ILayerZeroEndpoint.sol';
import './interfaces/ILayerZeroReceiver.sol';
import './NonblockingLzApp.sol';

error NotTokenOwner();
error InsufficientGas();
error SupplyExceeded();

contract CrossChainNFT is Ownable, ERC721, NonblockingLzApp {
    uint256 public counter;
    uint256 public currentTokenId;
    uint256 public immutable MAX_ID;

    event ReceivedNFT(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        address _from,
        uint256 _tokenId,
        uint256 counter
    );

    constructor(
        address _endpoint,
        uint256 _startTokenId
    ) ERC721('CrossChainNFT', 'CCNFT') NonblockingLzApp(_endpoint) {
        currentTokenId = _startTokenId;
        MAX_ID = currentTokenId + 99999;
    }

    function mint() external {
        if (currentTokenId == MAX_ID) revert SupplyExceeded();
        _mint(msg.sender, currentTokenId);
        unchecked {
            ++currentTokenId;
            ++counter;
        }
    }

    function crossChain(uint16 dstChainId, uint256 tokenId) public payable {
        if (msg.sender != ownerOf(tokenId)) revert NotTokenOwner();

        // Remove NFT on current chain
        unchecked {
            --counter;
        }
        _burn(tokenId);

        bytes memory payload = abi.encode(msg.sender, tokenId);
        uint16 version = 1;
        uint256 gasForLzReceive = 350000;
        bytes memory adapterParams = abi.encodePacked(version, gasForLzReceive);

        (uint256 messageFee, ) = lzEndpoint.estimateFees(
            dstChainId,
            address(this),
            payload,
            false,
            adapterParams
        );
        if (msg.value <= messageFee) revert InsufficientGas();

        _lzSend(
            dstChainId,
            payload,
            payable(msg.sender),
            address(0x0),
            adapterParams,
            msg.value
        );
    }

    function _nonblockingLzReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes memory _srcAddress,
        uint64 /*_nonce*/,
        bytes memory _payload
    ) internal override {
        address from;
        assembly {
            from := mload(add(_srcAddress, 20))
        }
        (address toAddress, uint256 tokenId) = abi.decode(
            _payload,
            (address, uint256)
        );

        _mint(toAddress, tokenId);
        unchecked {
            ++counter;
        }
        emit ReceivedNFT(_srcChainId, from, tokenId, counter);
    }

    // Endpoint.sol estimateFees() returns the fees for the message
    function estimateFees(
        uint16 dstChainId,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external view returns (uint256) {
        bytes memory payload = abi.encode(msg.sender, tokenId);
        uint16 version = 1;
        uint256 gasForLzReceive = 350000;
        bytes memory adapterParams = abi.encodePacked(version, gasForLzReceive);

        (uint256 messageFee, ) = lzEndpoint.estimateFees(
            dstChainId,
            address(this),
            payload,
            false,
            adapterParams
        );
        return messageFee;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: BUSL-1.1

pragma solidity >=0.5.0;

import "./ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig.sol";

interface ILayerZeroEndpoint is ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig {
    // @notice send a LayerZero message to the specified address at a LayerZero endpoint.
    // @param _dstChainId - the destination chain identifier
    // @param _destination - the address on destination chain (in bytes). address length/format may vary by chains
    // @param _payload - a custom bytes payload to send to the destination contract
    // @param _refundAddress - if the source transaction is cheaper than the amount of value passed, refund the additional amount to this address
    // @param _zroPaymentAddress - the address of the ZRO token holder who would pay for the transaction
    // @param _adapterParams - parameters for custom functionality. e.g. receive airdropped native gas from the relayer on destination
    function send(
        uint16 _dstChainId,
        bytes calldata _destination,
        bytes calldata _payload,
        address payable _refundAddress,
        address _zroPaymentAddress,
        bytes calldata _adapterParams
    ) external payable;

    // @notice used by the messaging library to publish verified payload
    // @param _srcChainId - the source chain identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source contract (as bytes) at the source chain
    // @param _dstAddress - the address on destination chain
    // @param _nonce - the unbound message ordering nonce
    // @param _gasLimit - the gas limit for external contract execution
    // @param _payload - verified payload to send to the destination contract
    function receivePayload(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress,
        address _dstAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        uint _gasLimit,
        bytes calldata _payload
    ) external;

    // @notice get the inboundNonce of a receiver from a source chain which could be EVM or non-EVM chain
    // @param _srcChainId - the source chain identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source chain contract address
    function getInboundNonce(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress
    ) external view returns (uint64);

    // @notice get the outboundNonce from this source chain which, consequently, is always an EVM
    // @param _srcAddress - the source chain contract address
    function getOutboundNonce(
        uint16 _dstChainId,
        address _srcAddress
    ) external view returns (uint64);

    // @notice gets a quote in source native gas, for the amount that send() requires to pay for message delivery
    // @param _dstChainId - the destination chain identifier
    // @param _userApplication - the user app address on this EVM chain
    // @param _payload - the custom message to send over LayerZero
    // @param _payInZRO - if false, user app pays the protocol fee in native token
    // @param _adapterParam - parameters for the adapter service, e.g. send some dust native token to dstChain
    function estimateFees(
        uint16 _dstChainId,
        address _userApplication,
        bytes calldata _payload,
        bool _payInZRO,
        bytes calldata _adapterParam
    ) external view returns (uint nativeFee, uint zroFee);

    // @notice get this Endpoint's immutable source identifier
    function getChainId() external view returns (uint16);

    // @notice the interface to retry failed message on this Endpoint destination
    // @param _srcChainId - the source chain identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source chain contract address
    // @param _payload - the payload to be retried
    function retryPayload(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress,
        bytes calldata _payload
    ) external;

    // @notice query if any STORED payload (message blocking) at the endpoint.
    // @param _srcChainId - the source chain identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source chain contract address
    function hasStoredPayload(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress
    ) external view returns (bool);

    // @notice query if the _libraryAddress is valid for sending msgs.
    // @param _userApplication - the user app address on this EVM chain
    function getSendLibraryAddress(
        address _userApplication
    ) external view returns (address);

    // @notice query if the _libraryAddress is valid for receiving msgs.
    // @param _userApplication - the user app address on this EVM chain
    function getReceiveLibraryAddress(
        address _userApplication
    ) external view returns (address);

    // @notice query if the non-reentrancy guard for send() is on
    // @return true if the guard is on. false otherwise
    function isSendingPayload() external view returns (bool);

    // @notice query if the non-reentrancy guard for receive() is on
    // @return true if the guard is on. false otherwise
    function isReceivingPayload() external view returns (bool);

    // @notice get the configuration of the LayerZero messaging library of the specified version
    // @param _version - messaging library version
    // @param _chainId - the chainId for the pending config change
    // @param _userApplication - the contract address of the user application
    // @param _configType - type of configuration. every messaging library has its own convention.
    function getConfig(
        uint16 _version,
        uint16 _chainId,
        address _userApplication,
        uint _configType
    ) external view returns (bytes memory);

    // @notice get the send() LayerZero messaging library version
    // @param _userApplication - the contract address of the user application
    function getSendVersion(
        address _userApplication
    ) external view returns (uint16);

    // @notice get the lzReceive() LayerZero messaging library version
    // @param _userApplication - the contract address of the user application
    function getReceiveVersion(
        address _userApplication
    ) external view returns (uint16);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: BUSL-1.1

pragma solidity >=0.5.0;

interface ILayerZeroReceiver {
    // @notice LayerZero endpoint will invoke this function to deliver the message on the destination
    // @param _srcChainId - the source endpoint identifier
    // @param _srcAddress - the source sending contract address from the source chain
    // @param _nonce - the ordered message nonce
    // @param _payload - the signed payload is the UA bytes has encoded to be sent
    function lzReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes calldata _payload
    ) external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: BUSL-1.1

pragma solidity >=0.5.0;

interface ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig {
    // @notice set the configuration of the LayerZero messaging library of the specified version
    // @param _version - messaging library version
    // @param _chainId - the chainId for the pending config change
    // @param _configType - type of configuration. every messaging library has its own convention.
    // @param _config - configuration in the bytes. can encode arbitrary content.
    function setConfig(
        uint16 _version,
        uint16 _chainId,
        uint _configType,
        bytes calldata _config
    ) external;

    // @notice set the send() LayerZero messaging library version to _version
    // @param _version - new messaging library version
    function setSendVersion(uint16 _version) external;

    // @notice set the lzReceive() LayerZero messaging library version to _version
    // @param _version - new messaging library version
    function setReceiveVersion(uint16 _version) external;

    // @notice Only when the UA needs to resume the message flow in blocking mode and clear the stored payload
    // @param _srcChainId - the chainId of the source chain
    // @param _srcAddress - the contract address of the source contract at the source chain
    function forceResumeReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress
    ) external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
import "./interfaces/ILayerZeroReceiver.sol";
import "./interfaces/ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig.sol";
import "./interfaces/ILayerZeroEndpoint.sol";
import "./utils/BytesLib.sol";

/*
 * a generic LzReceiver implementation
 */
abstract contract LzApp is
    Ownable,
    ILayerZeroReceiver,
    ILayerZeroUserApplicationConfig
{
    using BytesLib for bytes;

    // ua can not send payload larger than this by default, but it can be changed by the ua owner
    uint public constant DEFAULT_PAYLOAD_SIZE_LIMIT = 10000;

    ILayerZeroEndpoint public immutable lzEndpoint;
    mapping(uint16 => bytes) public trustedRemoteLookup;
    mapping(uint16 => mapping(uint16 => uint)) public minDstGasLookup;
    mapping(uint16 => uint) public payloadSizeLimitLookup;
    address public precrime;

    event SetPrecrime(address precrime);
    event SetTrustedRemote(uint16 _remoteChainId, bytes _path);
    event SetTrustedRemoteAddress(uint16 _remoteChainId, bytes _remoteAddress);
    event SetMinDstGas(uint16 _dstChainId, uint16 _type, uint _minDstGas);

    constructor(address _endpoint) {
        lzEndpoint = ILayerZeroEndpoint(_endpoint);
    }

    function lzReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes calldata _payload
    ) public virtual override {
        // lzReceive must be called by the endpoint for security
        require(
            _msgSender() == address(lzEndpoint),
            "LzApp: invalid endpoint caller"
        );

        bytes memory trustedRemote = trustedRemoteLookup[_srcChainId];
        // if will still block the message pathway from (srcChainId, srcAddress). should not receive message from untrusted remote.
        require(
            _srcAddress.length == trustedRemote.length &&
                trustedRemote.length > 0 &&
                keccak256(_srcAddress) == keccak256(trustedRemote),
            "LzApp: invalid source sending contract"
        );

        _blockingLzReceive(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload);
    }

    // abstract function - the default behaviour of LayerZero is blocking. See: NonblockingLzApp if you dont need to enforce ordered messaging
    function _blockingLzReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes memory _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes memory _payload
    ) internal virtual;

    function _lzSend(
        uint16 _dstChainId,
        bytes memory _payload,
        address payable _refundAddress,
        address _zroPaymentAddress,
        bytes memory _adapterParams,
        uint _nativeFee
    ) internal virtual {
        bytes memory trustedRemote = trustedRemoteLookup[_dstChainId];
        require(
            trustedRemote.length != 0,
            "LzApp: destination chain is not a trusted source"
        );
        _checkPayloadSize(_dstChainId, _payload.length);
        lzEndpoint.send{value: _nativeFee}(
            _dstChainId,
            trustedRemote,
            _payload,
            _refundAddress,
            _zroPaymentAddress,
            _adapterParams
        );
    }

    function _checkGasLimit(
        uint16 _dstChainId,
        uint16 _type,
        bytes memory _adapterParams,
        uint _extraGas
    ) internal view virtual {
        uint providedGasLimit = _getGasLimit(_adapterParams);
        uint minGasLimit = minDstGasLookup[_dstChainId][_type] + _extraGas;
        require(minGasLimit > 0, "LzApp: minGasLimit not set");
        require(providedGasLimit >= minGasLimit, "LzApp: gas limit is too low");
    }

    function _getGasLimit(
        bytes memory _adapterParams
    ) internal pure virtual returns (uint gasLimit) {
        require(_adapterParams.length >= 34, "LzApp: invalid adapterParams");
        assembly {
            gasLimit := mload(add(_adapterParams, 34))
        }
    }

    function _checkPayloadSize(
        uint16 _dstChainId,
        uint _payloadSize
    ) internal view virtual {
        uint payloadSizeLimit = payloadSizeLimitLookup[_dstChainId];
        if (payloadSizeLimit == 0) {
            // use default if not set
            payloadSizeLimit = DEFAULT_PAYLOAD_SIZE_LIMIT;
        }
        require(
            _payloadSize <= payloadSizeLimit,
            "LzApp: payload size is too large"
        );
    }

    //---------------------------UserApplication config----------------------------------------
    function getConfig(
        uint16 _version,
        uint16 _chainId,
        address,
        uint _configType
    ) external view returns (bytes memory) {
        return
            lzEndpoint.getConfig(
                _version,
                _chainId,
                address(this),
                _configType
            );
    }

    // generic config for LayerZero user Application
    function setConfig(
        uint16 _version,
        uint16 _chainId,
        uint _configType,
        bytes calldata _config
    ) external override onlyOwner {
        lzEndpoint.setConfig(_version, _chainId, _configType, _config);
    }

    function setSendVersion(uint16 _version) external override onlyOwner {
        lzEndpoint.setSendVersion(_version);
    }

    function setReceiveVersion(uint16 _version) external override onlyOwner {
        lzEndpoint.setReceiveVersion(_version);
    }

    function forceResumeReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress
    ) external override onlyOwner {
        lzEndpoint.forceResumeReceive(_srcChainId, _srcAddress);
    }

    // _path = abi.encodePacked(remoteAddress, localAddress)
    // this function set the trusted path for the cross-chain communication
    function setTrustedRemote(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _path
    ) external onlyOwner {
        trustedRemoteLookup[_srcChainId] = _path;
        emit SetTrustedRemote(_srcChainId, _path);
    }

    function setTrustedRemoteAddress(
        uint16 _remoteChainId,
        bytes calldata _remoteAddress
    ) external onlyOwner {
        trustedRemoteLookup[_remoteChainId] = abi.encodePacked(
            _remoteAddress,
            address(this)
        );
        emit SetTrustedRemoteAddress(_remoteChainId, _remoteAddress);
    }

    function getTrustedRemoteAddress(
        uint16 _remoteChainId
    ) external view returns (bytes memory) {
        bytes memory path = trustedRemoteLookup[_remoteChainId];
        require(path.length != 0, "LzApp: no trusted path record");
        return path.slice(0, path.length - 20); // the last 20 bytes should be address(this)
    }

    function setPrecrime(address _precrime) external onlyOwner {
        precrime = _precrime;
        emit SetPrecrime(_precrime);
    }

    function setMinDstGas(
        uint16 _dstChainId,
        uint16 _packetType,
        uint _minGas
    ) external onlyOwner {
        require(_minGas > 0, "LzApp: invalid minGas");
        minDstGasLookup[_dstChainId][_packetType] = _minGas;
        emit SetMinDstGas(_dstChainId, _packetType, _minGas);
    }

    // if the size is 0, it means default size limit
    function setPayloadSizeLimit(
        uint16 _dstChainId,
        uint _size
    ) external onlyOwner {
        payloadSizeLimitLookup[_dstChainId] = _size;
    }

    //--------------------------- VIEW FUNCTION ----------------------------------------
    function isTrustedRemote(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress
    ) external view returns (bool) {
        bytes memory trustedSource = trustedRemoteLookup[_srcChainId];
        return keccak256(trustedSource) == keccak256(_srcAddress);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./LzApp.sol";
import "./utils/ExcessivelySafeCall.sol";

/*
 * the default LayerZero messaging behaviour is blocking, i.e. any failed message will block the channel
 * this abstract class try-catch all fail messages and store locally for future retry. hence, non-blocking
 * NOTE: if the srcAddress is not configured properly, it will still block the message pathway from (srcChainId, srcAddress)
 */
abstract contract NonblockingLzApp is LzApp {
    using ExcessivelySafeCall for address;

    constructor(address _endpoint) LzApp(_endpoint) {}

    mapping(uint16 => mapping(bytes => mapping(uint64 => bytes32)))
        public failedMessages;

    event MessageFailed(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes _payload,
        bytes _reason
    );
    event RetryMessageSuccess(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes32 _payloadHash
    );

    // overriding the virtual function in LzReceiver
    function _blockingLzReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes memory _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes memory _payload
    ) internal virtual override {
        (bool success, bytes memory reason) = address(this).excessivelySafeCall(
            gasleft(),
            150,
            abi.encodeWithSelector(
                this.nonblockingLzReceive.selector,
                _srcChainId,
                _srcAddress,
                _nonce,
                _payload
            )
        );
        // try-catch all errors/exceptions
        if (!success) {
            _storeFailedMessage(
                _srcChainId,
                _srcAddress,
                _nonce,
                _payload,
                reason
            );
        }
    }

    function _storeFailedMessage(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes memory _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes memory _payload,
        bytes memory _reason
    ) internal virtual {
        failedMessages[_srcChainId][_srcAddress][_nonce] = keccak256(_payload);
        emit MessageFailed(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload, _reason);
    }

    function nonblockingLzReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes calldata _payload
    ) public virtual {
        // only internal transaction
        require(
            _msgSender() == address(this),
            "NonblockingLzApp: caller must be LzApp"
        );
        _nonblockingLzReceive(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload);
    }

    //@notice override this function
    function _nonblockingLzReceive(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes memory _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes memory _payload
    ) internal virtual;

    function retryMessage(
        uint16 _srcChainId,
        bytes calldata _srcAddress,
        uint64 _nonce,
        bytes calldata _payload
    ) public payable virtual {
        // assert there is message to retry
        bytes32 payloadHash = failedMessages[_srcChainId][_srcAddress][_nonce];
        require(
            payloadHash != bytes32(0),
            "NonblockingLzApp: no stored message"
        );
        require(
            keccak256(_payload) == payloadHash,
            "NonblockingLzApp: invalid payload"
        );
        // clear the stored message
        failedMessages[_srcChainId][_srcAddress][_nonce] = bytes32(0);
        // execute the message. revert if it fails again
        _nonblockingLzReceive(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, _payload);
        emit RetryMessageSuccess(_srcChainId, _srcAddress, _nonce, payloadHash);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: Unlicense
/*
 * @title Solidity Bytes Arrays Utils
 * @author Gonçalo Sá <[email protected]>
 *
 * @dev Bytes tightly packed arrays utility library for ethereum contracts written in Solidity.
 *      The library lets you concatenate, slice and type cast bytes arrays both in memory and storage.
 */
pragma solidity >=0.8.0 <0.9.0;

library BytesLib {
    function concat(
        bytes memory _preBytes,
        bytes memory _postBytes
    ) internal pure returns (bytes memory) {
        bytes memory tempBytes;

        assembly {
            // Get a location of some free memory and store it in tempBytes as
            // Solidity does for memory variables.
            tempBytes := mload(0x40)

            // Store the length of the first bytes array at the beginning of
            // the memory for tempBytes.
            let length := mload(_preBytes)
            mstore(tempBytes, length)

            // Maintain a memory counter for the current write location in the
            // temp bytes array by adding the 32 bytes for the array length to
            // the starting location.
            let mc := add(tempBytes, 0x20)
            // Stop copying when the memory counter reaches the length of the
            // first bytes array.
            let end := add(mc, length)

            for {
                // Initialize a copy counter to the start of the _preBytes data,
                // 32 bytes into its memory.
                let cc := add(_preBytes, 0x20)
            } lt(mc, end) {
                // Increase both counters by 32 bytes each iteration.
                mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                cc := add(cc, 0x20)
            } {
                // Write the _preBytes data into the tempBytes memory 32 bytes
                // at a time.
                mstore(mc, mload(cc))
            }

            // Add the length of _postBytes to the current length of tempBytes
            // and store it as the new length in the first 32 bytes of the
            // tempBytes memory.
            length := mload(_postBytes)
            mstore(tempBytes, add(length, mload(tempBytes)))

            // Move the memory counter back from a multiple of 0x20 to the
            // actual end of the _preBytes data.
            mc := end
            // Stop copying when the memory counter reaches the new combined
            // length of the arrays.
            end := add(mc, length)

            for {
                let cc := add(_postBytes, 0x20)
            } lt(mc, end) {
                mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                cc := add(cc, 0x20)
            } {
                mstore(mc, mload(cc))
            }

            // Update the free-memory pointer by padding our last write location
            // to 32 bytes: add 31 bytes to the end of tempBytes to move to the
            // next 32 byte block, then round down to the nearest multiple of
            // 32. If the sum of the length of the two arrays is zero then add
            // one before rounding down to leave a blank 32 bytes (the length block with 0).
            mstore(
                0x40,
                and(
                    add(add(end, iszero(add(length, mload(_preBytes)))), 31),
                    not(31) // Round down to the nearest 32 bytes.
                )
            )
        }

        return tempBytes;
    }

    function concatStorage(
        bytes storage _preBytes,
        bytes memory _postBytes
    ) internal {
        assembly {
            // Read the first 32 bytes of _preBytes storage, which is the length
            // of the array. (We don't need to use the offset into the slot
            // because arrays use the entire slot.)
            let fslot := sload(_preBytes.slot)
            // Arrays of 31 bytes or less have an even value in their slot,
            // while longer arrays have an odd value. The actual length is
            // the slot divided by two for odd values, and the lowest order
            // byte divided by two for even values.
            // If the slot is even, bitwise and the slot with 255 and divide by
            // two to get the length. If the slot is odd, bitwise and the slot
            // with -1 and divide by two.
            let slength := div(
                and(fslot, sub(mul(0x100, iszero(and(fslot, 1))), 1)),
                2
            )
            let mlength := mload(_postBytes)
            let newlength := add(slength, mlength)
            // slength can contain both the length and contents of the array
            // if length < 32 bytes so let's prepare for that
            // v. http://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/miscellaneous.html#layout-of-state-variables-in-storage
            switch add(lt(slength, 32), lt(newlength, 32))
            case 2 {
                // Since the new array still fits in the slot, we just need to
                // update the contents of the slot.
                // uint256(bytes_storage) = uint256(bytes_storage) + uint256(bytes_memory) + new_length
                sstore(
                    _preBytes.slot,
                    // all the modifications to the slot are inside this
                    // next block
                    add(
                        // we can just add to the slot contents because the
                        // bytes we want to change are the LSBs
                        fslot,
                        add(
                            mul(
                                div(
                                    // load the bytes from memory
                                    mload(add(_postBytes, 0x20)),
                                    // zero all bytes to the right
                                    exp(0x100, sub(32, mlength))
                                ),
                                // and now shift left the number of bytes to
                                // leave space for the length in the slot
                                exp(0x100, sub(32, newlength))
                            ),
                            // increase length by the double of the memory
                            // bytes length
                            mul(mlength, 2)
                        )
                    )
                )
            }
            case 1 {
                // The stored value fits in the slot, but the combined value
                // will exceed it.
                // get the keccak hash to get the contents of the array
                mstore(0x0, _preBytes.slot)
                let sc := add(keccak256(0x0, 0x20), div(slength, 32))

                // save new length
                sstore(_preBytes.slot, add(mul(newlength, 2), 1))

                // The contents of the _postBytes array start 32 bytes into
                // the structure. Our first read should obtain the `submod`
                // bytes that can fit into the unused space in the last word
                // of the stored array. To get this, we read 32 bytes starting
                // from `submod`, so the data we read overlaps with the array
                // contents by `submod` bytes. Masking the lowest-order
                // `submod` bytes allows us to add that value directly to the
                // stored value.

                let submod := sub(32, slength)
                let mc := add(_postBytes, submod)
                let end := add(_postBytes, mlength)
                let mask := sub(exp(0x100, submod), 1)

                sstore(
                    sc,
                    add(
                        and(
                            fslot,
                            0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff00
                        ),
                        and(mload(mc), mask)
                    )
                )

                for {
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                    sc := add(sc, 1)
                } lt(mc, end) {
                    sc := add(sc, 1)
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                } {
                    sstore(sc, mload(mc))
                }

                mask := exp(0x100, sub(mc, end))

                sstore(sc, mul(div(mload(mc), mask), mask))
            }
            default {
                // get the keccak hash to get the contents of the array
                mstore(0x0, _preBytes.slot)
                // Start copying to the last used word of the stored array.
                let sc := add(keccak256(0x0, 0x20), div(slength, 32))

                // save new length
                sstore(_preBytes.slot, add(mul(newlength, 2), 1))

                // Copy over the first `submod` bytes of the new data as in
                // case 1 above.
                let slengthmod := mod(slength, 32)
                let mlengthmod := mod(mlength, 32)
                let submod := sub(32, slengthmod)
                let mc := add(_postBytes, submod)
                let end := add(_postBytes, mlength)
                let mask := sub(exp(0x100, submod), 1)

                sstore(sc, add(sload(sc), and(mload(mc), mask)))

                for {
                    sc := add(sc, 1)
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                } lt(mc, end) {
                    sc := add(sc, 1)
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                } {
                    sstore(sc, mload(mc))
                }

                mask := exp(0x100, sub(mc, end))

                sstore(sc, mul(div(mload(mc), mask), mask))
            }
        }
    }

    function slice(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start,
        uint256 _length
    ) internal pure returns (bytes memory) {
        require(_length + 31 >= _length, "slice_overflow");
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + _length, "slice_outOfBounds");

        bytes memory tempBytes;

        assembly {
            switch iszero(_length)
            case 0 {
                // Get a location of some free memory and store it in tempBytes as
                // Solidity does for memory variables.
                tempBytes := mload(0x40)

                // The first word of the slice result is potentially a partial
                // word read from the original array. To read it, we calculate
                // the length of that partial word and start copying that many
                // bytes into the array. The first word we copy will start with
                // data we don't care about, but the last `lengthmod` bytes will
                // land at the beginning of the contents of the new array. When
                // we're done copying, we overwrite the full first word with
                // the actual length of the slice.
                let lengthmod := and(_length, 31)

                // The multiplication in the next line is necessary
                // because when slicing multiples of 32 bytes (lengthmod == 0)
                // the following copy loop was copying the origin's length
                // and then ending prematurely not copying everything it should.
                let mc := add(
                    add(tempBytes, lengthmod),
                    mul(0x20, iszero(lengthmod))
                )
                let end := add(mc, _length)

                for {
                    // The multiplication in the next line has the same exact purpose
                    // as the one above.
                    let cc := add(
                        add(
                            add(_bytes, lengthmod),
                            mul(0x20, iszero(lengthmod))
                        ),
                        _start
                    )
                } lt(mc, end) {
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                    cc := add(cc, 0x20)
                } {
                    mstore(mc, mload(cc))
                }

                mstore(tempBytes, _length)

                //update free-memory pointer
                //allocating the array padded to 32 bytes like the compiler does now
                mstore(0x40, and(add(mc, 31), not(31)))
            }
            //if we want a zero-length slice let's just return a zero-length array
            default {
                tempBytes := mload(0x40)
                //zero out the 32 bytes slice we are about to return
                //we need to do it because Solidity does not garbage collect
                mstore(tempBytes, 0)

                mstore(0x40, add(tempBytes, 0x20))
            }
        }

        return tempBytes;
    }

    function toAddress(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start
    ) internal pure returns (address) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 20, "toAddress_outOfBounds");
        address tempAddress;

        assembly {
            tempAddress := div(
                mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x20), _start)),
                0x1000000000000000000000000
            )
        }

        return tempAddress;
    }

    function toUint8(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start
    ) internal pure returns (uint8) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 1, "toUint8_outOfBounds");
        uint8 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x1), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint16(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start
    ) internal pure returns (uint16) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 2, "toUint16_outOfBounds");
        uint16 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x2), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint32(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start
    ) internal pure returns (uint32) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 4, "toUint32_outOfBounds");
        uint32 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x4), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint64(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start
    ) internal pure returns (uint64) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 8, "toUint64_outOfBounds");
        uint64 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x8), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint96(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start
    ) internal pure returns (uint96) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 12, "toUint96_outOfBounds");
        uint96 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0xc), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint128(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start
    ) internal pure returns (uint128) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 16, "toUint128_outOfBounds");
        uint128 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x10), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toUint256(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start
    ) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 32, "toUint256_outOfBounds");
        uint256 tempUint;

        assembly {
            tempUint := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x20), _start))
        }

        return tempUint;
    }

    function toBytes32(
        bytes memory _bytes,
        uint256 _start
    ) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        require(_bytes.length >= _start + 32, "toBytes32_outOfBounds");
        bytes32 tempBytes32;

        assembly {
            tempBytes32 := mload(add(add(_bytes, 0x20), _start))
        }

        return tempBytes32;
    }

    function equal(
        bytes memory _preBytes,
        bytes memory _postBytes
    ) internal pure returns (bool) {
        bool success = true;

        assembly {
            let length := mload(_preBytes)

            // if lengths don't match the arrays are not equal
            switch eq(length, mload(_postBytes))
            case 1 {
                // cb is a circuit breaker in the for loop since there's
                //  no said feature for inline assembly loops
                // cb = 1 - don't breaker
                // cb = 0 - break
                let cb := 1

                let mc := add(_preBytes, 0x20)
                let end := add(mc, length)

                for {
                    let cc := add(_postBytes, 0x20)
                    // the next line is the loop condition:
                    // while(uint256(mc < end) + cb == 2)
                } eq(add(lt(mc, end), cb), 2) {
                    mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                    cc := add(cc, 0x20)
                } {
                    // if any of these checks fails then arrays are not equal
                    if iszero(eq(mload(mc), mload(cc))) {
                        // unsuccess:
                        success := 0
                        cb := 0
                    }
                }
            }
            default {
                // unsuccess:
                success := 0
            }
        }

        return success;
    }

    function equalStorage(
        bytes storage _preBytes,
        bytes memory _postBytes
    ) internal view returns (bool) {
        bool success = true;

        assembly {
            // we know _preBytes_offset is 0
            let fslot := sload(_preBytes.slot)
            // Decode the length of the stored array like in concatStorage().
            let slength := div(
                and(fslot, sub(mul(0x100, iszero(and(fslot, 1))), 1)),
                2
            )
            let mlength := mload(_postBytes)

            // if lengths don't match the arrays are not equal
            switch eq(slength, mlength)
            case 1 {
                // slength can contain both the length and contents of the array
                // if length < 32 bytes so let's prepare for that
                // v. http://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/miscellaneous.html#layout-of-state-variables-in-storage
                if iszero(iszero(slength)) {
                    switch lt(slength, 32)
                    case 1 {
                        // blank the last byte which is the length
                        fslot := mul(div(fslot, 0x100), 0x100)

                        if iszero(eq(fslot, mload(add(_postBytes, 0x20)))) {
                            // unsuccess:
                            success := 0
                        }
                    }
                    default {
                        // cb is a circuit breaker in the for loop since there's
                        //  no said feature for inline assembly loops
                        // cb = 1 - don't breaker
                        // cb = 0 - break
                        let cb := 1

                        // get the keccak hash to get the contents of the array
                        mstore(0x0, _preBytes.slot)
                        let sc := keccak256(0x0, 0x20)

                        let mc := add(_postBytes, 0x20)
                        let end := add(mc, mlength)

                        // the next line is the loop condition:
                        // while(uint256(mc < end) + cb == 2)
                        for {

                        } eq(add(lt(mc, end), cb), 2) {
                            sc := add(sc, 1)
                            mc := add(mc, 0x20)
                        } {
                            if iszero(eq(sload(sc), mload(mc))) {
                                // unsuccess:
                                success := 0
                                cb := 0
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            default {
                // unsuccess:
                success := 0
            }
        }

        return success;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT OR Apache-2.0
pragma solidity >=0.7.6;

library ExcessivelySafeCall {
    uint256 constant LOW_28_MASK =
        0x00000000ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff;

    /// @notice Use when you _really_ really _really_ don't trust the called
    /// contract. This prevents the called contract from causing reversion of
    /// the caller in as many ways as we can.
    /// @dev The main difference between this and a solidity low-level call is
    /// that we limit the number of bytes that the callee can cause to be
    /// copied to caller memory. This prevents stupid things like malicious
    /// contracts returning 10,000,000 bytes causing a local OOG when copying
    /// to memory.
    /// @param _target The address to call
    /// @param _gas The amount of gas to forward to the remote contract
    /// @param _maxCopy The maximum number of bytes of returndata to copy
    /// to memory.
    /// @param _calldata The data to send to the remote contract
    /// @return success and returndata, as `.call()`. Returndata is capped to
    /// `_maxCopy` bytes.
    function excessivelySafeCall(
        address _target,
        uint256 _gas,
        uint16 _maxCopy,
        bytes memory _calldata
    ) internal returns (bool, bytes memory) {
        // set up for assembly call
        uint256 _toCopy;
        bool _success;
        bytes memory _returnData = new bytes(_maxCopy);
        // dispatch message to recipient
        // by assembly calling "handle" function
        // we call via assembly to avoid memcopying a very large returndata
        // returned by a malicious contract
        assembly {
            _success := call(
                _gas, // gas
                _target, // recipient
                0, // ether value
                add(_calldata, 0x20), // inloc
                mload(_calldata), // inlen
                0, // outloc
                0 // outlen
            )
            // limit our copy to 256 bytes
            _toCopy := returndatasize()
            if gt(_toCopy, _maxCopy) {
                _toCopy := _maxCopy
            }
            // Store the length of the copied bytes
            mstore(_returnData, _toCopy)
            // copy the bytes from returndata[0:_toCopy]
            returndatacopy(add(_returnData, 0x20), 0, _toCopy)
        }
        return (_success, _returnData);
    }

    /// @notice Use when you _really_ really _really_ don't trust the called
    /// contract. This prevents the called contract from causing reversion of
    /// the caller in as many ways as we can.
    /// @dev The main difference between this and a solidity low-level call is
    /// that we limit the number of bytes that the callee can cause to be
    /// copied to caller memory. This prevents stupid things like malicious
    /// contracts returning 10,000,000 bytes causing a local OOG when copying
    /// to memory.
    /// @param _target The address to call
    /// @param _gas The amount of gas to forward to the remote contract
    /// @param _maxCopy The maximum number of bytes of returndata to copy
    /// to memory.
    /// @param _calldata The data to send to the remote contract
    /// @return success and returndata, as `.call()`. Returndata is capped to
    /// `_maxCopy` bytes.
    function excessivelySafeStaticCall(
        address _target,
        uint256 _gas,
        uint16 _maxCopy,
        bytes memory _calldata
    ) internal view returns (bool, bytes memory) {
        // set up for assembly call
        uint256 _toCopy;
        bool _success;
        bytes memory _returnData = new bytes(_maxCopy);
        // dispatch message to recipient
        // by assembly calling "handle" function
        // we call via assembly to avoid memcopying a very large returndata
        // returned by a malicious contract
        assembly {
            _success := staticcall(
                _gas, // gas
                _target, // recipient
                add(_calldata, 0x20), // inloc
                mload(_calldata), // inlen
                0, // outloc
                0 // outlen
            )
            // limit our copy to 256 bytes
            _toCopy := returndatasize()
            if gt(_toCopy, _maxCopy) {
                _toCopy := _maxCopy
            }
            // Store the length of the copied bytes
            mstore(_returnData, _toCopy)
            // copy the bytes from returndata[0:_toCopy]
            returndatacopy(add(_returnData, 0x20), 0, _toCopy)
        }
        return (_success, _returnData);
    }

    /**
     * @notice Swaps function selectors in encoded contract calls
     * @dev Allows reuse of encoded calldata for functions with identical
     * argument types but different names. It simply swaps out the first 4 bytes
     * for the new selector. This function modifies memory in place, and should
     * only be used with caution.
     * @param _newSelector The new 4-byte selector
     * @param _buf The encoded contract args
     */
    function swapSelector(
        bytes4 _newSelector,
        bytes memory _buf
    ) internal pure {
        require(_buf.length >= 4);
        uint256 _mask = LOW_28_MASK;
        assembly {
            // load the first word of
            let _word := mload(add(_buf, 0x20))
            // mask out the top 4 bytes
            // /x
            _word := and(_word, _mask)
            _word := or(_newSelector, _word)
            mstore(add(_buf, 0x20), _word)
        }
    }
}

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